马丁·路德·金最后演讲:我已达至峰顶(I've been to the mountaintop)(附音频)_给力英语网
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    马丁·路德·金最后演讲:我已达至峰顶
    I've been to the mountaintop

    [2019年1月21日] 来源:MEMPHIS, Tenn.  作者:Martin Luther King
     
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    这是马丁.路德.金博士的最后一次演讲(3 April 1968 Memphis, Tennessee),次日他被暗杀。在他发表这篇著名的演讲的时候, 他预感到了自己的命运,因为在他来孟菲斯之前已经收到了各种各样的死亡恐吓。但是他用行 动作出了回答。他说不要问我帮了别人自己会有什么后果,而要问“如果我不帮助别人,别人会 有什么后果”。 演讲的题目出自《圣经》以色列人出埃及的典故,摩西带领以色列人摆脱埃及法老的奴役,去往哪上帝应许的“流奶与蜜之地”–迦南。摩西被上帝带到山顶上,看到了那“应许之地(” land),但他却被告知,他自己不能到达。


    调整语速:

    Thank you very kindly, my friends. As I listened to Ralph Abernathy and his eloquent and generous introduction and then thought about myself, I wondered who he was talking about. It"s always good to have your closest friend and associate to say something good about you. And Ralph Abernathy is the best friend that I have in the world. I"m delighted to see each of you here tonight in spite of a storm warning. You reveal that you are determined to go on anyhow.


    Something is happening in Memphis; something is happening in our world. And you know, if I were standing at the beginning of time, with the possibility of taking a kind of general and panoramic view of the whole of human history up to now, and the Almighty said to me, "Martin Luther King, which age would you like to live in?" I would take my mental flight by Egypt and I would watch God"s children in their magnificent trek from the dark dungeons of Egypt through, or rather across the Red Sea, through the wilderness on toward the promised land. And in spite of its magnificence, I wouldn"t stop there.


    I would move on by Greece and take my mind to Mount Olympus. And I would see Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Euripides and Aristophanes assembled around the Parthenon. And I would watch them around the Parthenon as they discussed the great and eternal issues of reality. But I wouldn"t stop there.


    I would go on, even to the great heyday of the Roman Empire. And I would see developments around there, through various emperors and leaders. But I wouldn"t stop there.


    I would even come up to the day of the Renaissance, and get a quick picture of all that the Renaissance did for the cultural and aesthetic life of man. But I wouldn"t stop there.


    I would even go by the way that the man for whom I am named had his habitat. And I would watch Martin Luther as he tacked his ninety-five theses on the door at the church of Wittenberg. But I wouldn"t stop there. I would come on up even to 1863, and watch a vacillating President by the name of Abraham Lincoln finally come to the conclusion that he had to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. But I wouldn"t stop there.


    I would even come up to the early thirties, and see a man grappling with the problems of the bankruptcy of his nation. And come with an eloquent cry that we have nothing to fear but "fear itself." But I wouldn"t stop there. Strangely enough, I would turn to the Almighty, and say, "If you allow me to live just a few years in the second half of the 20th century, I will be happy."


    Now that"s a strange statement to make, because the world is all messed up. The nation is sick. Trouble is in the land; confusion all around. That"s a strange statement. But I know, somehow, that only when it is dark enough can you see the stars. And I see God working in this period of the twentieth century in a way that men, in some strange way, are responding. Something is happening in our world. The masses of people are rising up. And wherever they are assembled today, whether they are in Johannesburg, South Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; Accra, Ghana; New York City; Atlanta, Georgia; Jackson, Mississippi; or Memphis, Tennessee -- the cry is always the same: "We want to be free."


    And another reason that I"m happy to live in this period is that we have been forced to a point where we are going to have to grapple with the problems that men have been trying to grapple with through history, but the demands didn"t force them to do it. Survival demands that we grapple with them. Men, for years now, have been talking about war and peace. But now, no longer can they just talk about it. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it"s nonviolence or nonexistence. That is where we are today.


    And also in the human rights revolution, if something isn"t done, and done in a hurry, to bring the colored peoples of the world out of their long years of poverty, their long years of hurt and neglect, the whole world is doomed. Now, I"m just happy that God has allowed me to live in this period to see what is unfolding. And I"m happy that He"s allowed me to be in Memphis.

    I can remember -- I can remember when Negroes were just going around as Ralph has said, so often, scratching where they didn"t itch, and laughing when they were not tickled. But that day is all over. We mean business now, and we are determined to gain our rightful place in God"s world.


    And that"s all this whole thing is about. We aren"t engaged in any negative protest and in any negative arguments with anybody. We are saying that we are determined to be men. We are determined to be people. We are saying -- We are saying that we are God"s children. And that we are God"s children, we don"t have to live like we are forced to live.


    Now, what does all of this mean in this great period of history? It means that we"ve got to stay together. We"ve got to stay together and maintain unity. You know, whenever Pharaoh wanted to prolong the period of slavery in Egypt, he had a favorite, favorite formula for doing it. What was that? He kept the slaves fighting among themselves. But whenever the slaves get together, something happens in Pharaoh"s court, and he cannot hold the slaves in slavery. When the slaves get together, that"s the beginning of getting out of slavery. Now let us maintain unity.


    Secondly, let us keep the issues where they are. The issue is injustice. The issue is the refusal of Memphis to be fair and honest in its dealings with its public servants, who happen to be sanitation workers. Now, we"ve got to keep attention on that. That"s always the problem with a little violence. You know what happened the other day, and the press dealt only with the window-breaking. I read the articles. They very seldom got around to mentioning the fact that one thousand, three hundred sanitation workers are on strike, and that Memphis is not being fair to them, and that Mayor Loeb is in dire need of a doctor. They didn"t get around to that.


    Now we"re going to march again, and we"ve got to march again, in order to put the issue where it is supposed to be -- and force everybody to see that there are thirteen hundred of God"s children here suffering, sometimes going hungry, going through dark and dreary nights wondering how this thing is going to come out. That"s the issue. And we"ve got to say to the nation: We know how it"s coming out. For when people get caught up with that which is right and they are willing to sacrifice for it, there is no stopping point short of victory. We aren"t going to let any mace stop us. We are masters in our nonviolent movement in disarming police forces; they don"t know what to do. I"ve seen them so often. I remember in Birmingham, Alabama, when we were in that majestic struggle there, we would move out of the 16th Street Baptist Church day after day; by the hundreds we would move out. And Bull Connor would tell them to send the dogs forth, and they did come; but we just went before the dogs singing, "Ain"t gonna let nobody turn me around."


    Bull Connor next would say, "Turn the fire hoses on." And as I said to you the other night, Bull Connor didn"t know history. He knew a kind of physics that somehow didn"t relate to the transphysics that we knew about. And that was the fact that there was a certain kind of fire that no water could put out. And we went before the fire hoses; we had known water. If we were Baptist or some other denominations, we had been immersed. If we were Methodist, and some others, we had been sprinkled, but we knew water. That couldn"t stop us.


    And we just went on before the dogs and we would look at them; and we"d go on before the water hoses and we would look at it, and we"d just go on singing "Over my head I see freedom in the air." And then we would be thrown in the paddy wagons, and sometimes we were stacked in there like sardines in a can. And they would throw us in, and old Bull would say, "Take "em off," and they did; and we would just go in the paddy wagon singing, "We Shall Overcome."


    And every now and then we"d get in jail, and we"d see the jailers looking through the windows being moved by our prayers, and being moved by our words and our songs. And there was a power there which Bull Connor couldn"t adjust to; and so we ended up transforming Bull into a steer, and we won our struggle in Birmingham. Now we"ve got to go on in Memphis just like that. I call upon you to be with us when we go out Monday.


    Now about injunctions: We have an injunction and we"re going into court tomorrow morning to fight this illegal, unconstitutional injunction. All we say to America is, "Be true to what you said on paper." If I lived in China or even Russia, or any totalitarian country, maybe I could understand some of these illegal injunctions. Maybe I could understand the denial of certain basic First Amendment privileges, because they hadn"t committed themselves to that over there.


    But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of the freedom of speech.


    Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right. And so just as I say, we aren"t going to let dogs or water hoses turn us around, we aren"t going to let any injunction turn us around. We are going on.


    We need all of you. And you know what"s beautiful to me is to see all of these ministers of the Gospel. It"s a marvelous picture. Who is it that is supposed to articulate the longings and aspirations of the people more than the preacher? Somehow the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones. And whenever injustice is around he tell it. Somehow the preacher must be an Amos, and saith, "When God speaks who can but prophesy?" Again with Amos, "Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream." Somehow the preacher must say with Jesus, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me," and he"s anointed me to deal with the problems of the poor."


    And I want to commend the preachers, under the leadership of these noble men: James Lawson, one who has been in this struggle for many years; he"s been to jail for struggling; he"s been kicked out of Vanderbilt University for this struggle, but he"s still going on, fighting for the rights of his people. Reverend Ralph Jackson, Billy Kiles; I could just go right on down the list, but time will not permit.


    But I want to thank all of them. And I want you to thank them, because so often, preachers aren"t concerned about anything but themselves. And I"m always happy to see a relevant ministry.


    It"s all right to talk about "long white robes over yonder," in all of its symbolism. But ultimately people want some suits and dresses and shoes to wear down here! It"s all right to talk about "streets flowing with milk and honey," but God has commanded us to be concerned about the slums down here, and his children who can"t eat three square meals a day. It"s all right to talk about the new Jerusalem, but one day, God"s preacher must talk about the new New York, the new Atlanta, the new Philadelphia, the new Los Angeles, the new Memphis, Tennessee. This is what we have to do.


    Now the other thing we"ll have to do is this: Always anchor our external direct action with the power of economic withdrawal. Now, we are poor people. Individually, we are poor when you compare us with white society in America. We are poor. Never stop and forget that collectively -- that means all of us together -- collectively we are richer than all the nations in the world, with the exception of nine. Did you ever think about that?


    After you leave the United States, Soviet Russia, Great Britain, West Germany, France, and I could name the others, the American Negro collectively is richer than most nations of the world. We have an annual income of more than thirty billion dollars a year, which is more than all of the exports of the United States, and more than the national budget of Canada. Did you know that? That"s power right there, if we know how to pool it.


    We don"t have to argue with anybody. We don"t have to curse and go around acting bad with our words. We don"t need any bricks and bottles. We don"t need any Molotov cocktails. We just need to go around to these stores, and to these massive industries in our country, and say, "God sent us by here, to say to you that you"re not treating his children right. And we"ve come by here to ask you to make the first item on your agenda fair treatment, where God"s children are concerned.


    Now, if you are not prepared to do that, we do have an agenda that we must follow. And our agenda calls for withdrawing economic support from you."


    And so, as a result of this, we are asking you tonight, to go out and tell your neighbors not to buy Coca-Cola in Memphis. Go by and tell them not to buy Sealtest milk. Tell them not to buy -- what is the other bread? -- Wonder Bread. And what is the other bread company, Jesse? Tell them not to buy Hart"s bread. As Jesse Jackson has said, up to now, only the garbage men have been feeling pain; now we must kind of redistribute the pain.

    We are choosing these companies because they haven"t been fair in their hiring policies; and we are choosing them because they can begin the process of saying they are going to support the needs and the rights of these men who are on strike. And then they can move on town -- downtown and tell Mayor Loeb to do what is right.


    But not only that, we"ve got to strengthen black institutions. I call upon you to take your money out of the banks downtown and deposit your money in Tri-State Bank. We want a "bank-in" movement in Memphis. Go by the savings and loan association. I"m not asking you something that we don"t do ourselves at SCLC. Judge Hooks and others will tell you that we have an account here in the savings and loan association from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.


    We are telling you to follow what we are doing. Put your money there. You have six or seven black insurance companies here in the city of Memphis. Take out your insurance there. We want to have an "insurance-in."


    Now these are some practical things that we can do. We begin the process of building a greater economic base. And at the same time, we are putting pressure where it really hurts. I ask you to follow through here.


    Now, let me say as I move to my conclusion that we"ve got to give ourselves to this struggle until the end.


    Nothing would be more tragic than to stop at this point in Memphis. We"ve got to see it through. And when we have our march, you need to be there. If it means leaving work, if it means leaving school -- be there. Be concerned about your brother. You may not be on strike. But either we go up together, or we go down together.


    Let us develop a kind of dangerous unselfishness. One day a man came to Jesus, and he wanted to raise some questions about some vital matters of life. At points he wanted to trick Jesus, and show him that he knew a little more than Jesus knew and throw him off base.... Now that question could have easily ended up in a philosophical and theological debate. But Jesus immediately pulled that question from mid-air, and placed it on a dangerous curve between Jerusalem and Jericho. And he talked about a certain man, who fell among thieves. You remember that a Levite and a priest passed by on the other side.


    They didn"t stop to help him. And finally a man of another race came by. He got down from his beast, decided not to be compassionate by proxy. But he got down with him, administered first aid, and helped the man in need. Jesus ended up saying, this was the good man, this was the great man, because he had the capacity to project the "I" into the "thou," and to be concerned about his brother.


    Now you know, we use our imagination a great deal to try to determine why the priest and the Levite didn"t stop. At times we say they were busy going to a church meeting, an ecclesiastical gathering, and they had to get on down to Jerusalem so they wouldn"t be late for their meeting. At other times we would speculate that there was a religious law that "One who was engaged in religious ceremonials was not to touch a human body twenty-four hours before the ceremony." And every now and then we begin to wonder whether maybe they were not going down to Jerusalem -- or down to Jericho, rather to organize a "Jericho Road Improvement Association."


    That"s a possibility. Maybe they felt that it was better to deal with the problem from the causal root, rather than to get bogged down with an individual effect.


    But I"m going to tell you what my imagination tells me. It"s possible that those men were afraid. You see, the Jericho road is a dangerous road. I remember when Mrs. King and I were first in Jerusalem. We rented a car and drove from Jerusalem down to Jericho. And as soon as we got on that road, I said to my wife, "I can see why Jesus used this as the setting for his parable." It"s a winding, meandering road. It"s really conducive for ambushing. You start out in Jerusalem, which is about 1200 miles -- or rather 1200 feet above sea level. And by the time you get down to Jericho, fifteen or twenty minutes later, you"re about 2200 feet below sea level. That"s a dangerous road. In the days of Jesus it came to be known as the "Bloody Pass."


    And you know, it"s possible that the priest and the Levite looked over that man on the ground and wondered if the robbers were still around. Or it"s possible that they felt that the man on the ground was merely faking. And he was acting like he had been robbed and hurt, in order to seize them over there, lure them there for quick and easy seizure. And so the first question that the priest asked -- the first question that the Levite asked was, "If I stop to help this man, what will happen to me?" But then the Good Samaritan came by. And he reversed the question: "If I do not stop to help this man, what will happen to him?"


    That"s the question before you tonight. Not, "If I stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to my job. Not, "If I stop to help the sanitation workers what will happen to all of the hours that I usually spend in my office every day and every week as a pastor?" The question is not, "If I stop to help this man in need, what will happen to me?" The question is, "If I do not stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to them?" That"s the question.


    Let us rise up tonight with a greater readiness. Let us stand with a greater determination. And let us move on in these powerful days, these days of challenge to make America what it ought to be. We have an opportunity to make America a better nation. And I want to thank God, once more, for allowing me to be here with you. You know, several years ago, I was in New York City autographing the first book that I had written. And while sitting there autographing books, a demented black woman came up.


    The only question I heard from her was, "Are you Martin Luther King?" And I was looking down writing, and I said, "Yes." And the next minute I felt something beating on my chest. Before I knew it I had been stabbed by this demented woman. I was rushed to Harlem Hospital. It was a dark Saturday afternoon. And that blade had gone through, and the X-rays revealed that the tip of the blade was on the edge of my aorta, the main artery. And once that"s punctured, your drowned in your own blood -- that"s the end of you.


    It came out in the New York Times the next morning, that if I had merely sneezed, I would have died. Well, about four days later, they allowed me, after the operation, after my chest had been opened, and the blade had been taken out, to move around in the wheel chair in the hospital.


    They allowed me to read some of the mail that came in, and from all over the states and the world, kind letters came in. I read a few, but one of them I will never forget. I had received one from the President and the Vice-President. I"ve forgotten what those telegrams said. I"d received a visit and a letter from the Governor of New York, but I"ve forgotten what that letter said. But there was another letter that came from a little girl, a young girl who was a student at the White Plains High School. And I looked at that letter, and I"ll never forget it. It said simply,


    "Dear Dr. King, I am a ninth-grade student at the White Plains High School."


    And she said,


    "While it should not matter, I would like to mention that I"m a white girl. I read in the paper of your misfortune, and of your suffering. And I read that if you had sneezed, you would have died. And I"m simply writing you to say that I"m so happy that you didn"t sneeze."


    And I want to say tonight -- I want to say tonight that I too am happy that I didn"t sneeze. Because if I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been around here in 1960, when students all over the South started sitting-in at lunch counters. And I knew that as they were sitting in, they were really standing up for the best in the American dream, and taking the whole nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the Founding Fathers in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.


    If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been around here in 1961, when we decided to take a ride for freedom and ended segregation in inter-state travel.


    If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been around here in 1962, when Negroes in Albany, Georgia, decided to straighten their backs up. And whenever men and women straighten their backs up, they are going somewhere, because a man can"t ride your back unless it is bent.


    If I had sneezed -- If I had sneezed I wouldn"t have been here in 1963, when the black people of Birmingham, Alabama, aroused the conscience of this nation, and brought into being the Civil Rights Bill.


    If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have had a chance later that year, in August, to try to tell America about a dream that I had had.


    If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been down in Selma, Alabama, to see the great Movement there.


    If I had sneezed, I wouldn"t have been in Memphis to see a community rally around those brothers and sisters who are suffering.


    I"m so happy that I didn"t sneeze.


    And they were telling me --. Now, it doesn"t matter, now. It really doesn"t matter what happens now. I left Atlanta this morning, and as we got started on the plane, there were six of us.


    The pilot said over the public address system, "We are sorry for the delay, but we have Dr. Martin Luther King on the plane. And to be sure that all of the bags were checked, and to be sure that nothing would be wrong with on the plane, we had to check out everything carefully. And we"ve had the plane protected and guarded all night."


    And then I got into Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?


    Well, I don"t know what will happen now. We"ve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn"t matter with me now, because I"ve been to the mountaintop. And I don"t mind.


    Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I"m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God"s will. And He"s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I"ve looked over. And I"ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land!


    And so I"m happy, tonight.


    I"m not worried about anything.


    I"m not fearing any man.


    Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.

    真的很感谢你们,我的朋友们。 刚才我听着 Ralph Abernathy 的一番颇具说服力的慷慨介绍,同时自忖了一番,我感到很疑惑, 他刚才说的是谁啊?(听众笑)能听到你最亲近的朋友和伙伴的赞扬,的确是件非常愉快的事 情。而 Ralph Abernathy 是我在这个世界上最好的朋友。 即便是在有暴风警告的情况下,今晚大家仍然能来这里,我真的很高兴。这表明了你们不管发 生什么事情都要将运动坚定地进行下去的决心。现在孟菲斯(Memphis)就出了些问题,这个 世界也在接连不断的出问题。 要知道,如果我站在时间的起点上,可以以一种鸟瞰的全景的眼光来浏览整个人类社会的历史, 而全能的主对我说:“马丁·路德·金,你想生活在哪个时代呢?”我会让我的灵魂飞往埃及 (Egypt),去看看,在那里神之子离开埃及黑暗的土牢,并一路跟随他们宏大庄严的迁徙,或 者甚至跟着他们一路跨过红海(Red Sea),跋涉过蛮荒之地前往主所允诺的福地。【此一节讲 的是圣经里的摩西带领以色列人出埃及记】尽管这场景很壮观,但我不愿就此打住。我会接着 来到希腊(Greece),让思绪飞到奥林帕斯山(Mount Olympus),看看在帕台农神殿(Parthenon) 里,柏拉图(Plato 古希腊哲学家,代表作《理想国》)、亚里士多德(Aristotle 古希腊哲学家)、 苏格拉底(Socrates 古希腊哲学家)、欧里庇得斯(Euripides 希腊的悲剧诗人,代表作《希波 吕托斯》、《美狄亚》)、阿里斯托芬(Aristophanes 古希腊诗人,喜剧作家,享有“喜剧之父”的美 名)齐聚一堂,看看他们在帕台农神殿里一起讨论伟大而不朽的真理(或者说‘实在’的各个议题)。 但我仍不会停住。我要继续前行,甚至是来到罗马帝国的全盛时代。我要看看在多位皇帝和领 袖的管理下,这里的所取得的发展。但我仍不会在此停留。我甚至还要到文艺复兴 (Renaissance)时期去看一看。快速地浏览一遍文艺复兴为人类生活中的文化和美学所带来 的新的气象。但我仍不会就此停步。我还要去那个人所处的时代,那个我以他的名字命名的人 所处的时代,再走一遍他所走的路,看看马丁·路德将《九十五条》钉在威丁堡大学的教堂大门 上。但我还不愿住。我还要继续穿行到1863年,看看那个犹豫不决的,名字叫做林肯的美国总 统,最终作出决定他必须签署《解放宣言》。但我还不能住。我还要去30年代早期看看,看看 那个正努力解决他的国家的银行破产问题的人,最终信心满满地呼喊道:除了恐惧本身,我们 没有什么好恐惧的。【这个人说的是富兰克林·罗斯福,这是他在1933年的第一次就职演说中的 话】但我还不愿就此留在这里。莫名其妙的地,我会对主说:“如果您允许我在20世纪的后半段 再活几年的话,我就很满足了。”呃,这真是很奇怪的要求啊,因为任谁都知道,当今世界无处 不在的是混乱骚动。而这个国家从内部出了问题,麻烦遍地,混乱无处不在,这真是奇怪的说 话呀!但是无论如何我知道,只有在天足够黑的时候,星光才更加美丽。 我能看到上帝在20世纪所做的努力,然而,人类却以一种很奇怪的方式予以抵消予以回应着。 这个世界确实出了问题。越来越多的人意识到这点他们站起来了,今天不管他们在哪里集会, 不论是在南非的约翰内斯堡(Johannesburg, South Africa)、还是在肯尼亚的首都内罗毕 (Nairobi, Kenya)、还是在加纳的首都阿克拉 (Accra, Ghana)、纽约城(New York City)、 还是在佐治亚的首府亚特兰大(Atlanta,Georgia)、还是在密西西比州的首府杰克逊(Jackson, Mississippi)、 还是田纳西州的孟菲斯(Memphis, Tennessee),他们的呼喊总是一样的,那 就是:“我们要自由!” 我很高兴能够活在当下的另外一个原因是,我们已经到了不得不正视那些,在整个人类历史过 程中,人们一直试图解决而没能解决的问题的时候了,他们没能解决那些难题是因为他们没有 被逼到不得不做的地步。而如今我们要生存的话就必须解决这些问题。已经有好几年了,人类 一直在谈论战争与和平。但是现在仅仅是谈论已经远远不够了。在当今时尚,已经不再是在暴 力与非暴力之间的选择了,现在的问题是要么非暴力,要么一起毁灭。这就是我们今天的处境。 并且,人权改革上也是如此,如果我们再不采取行动,而且尽快的,使这个世界上的有色人种 摆脱长年的贫穷,长年的痛苦,长年的被忽视的话,那我们所处的世界必定会走向末日。所以, 我很高兴主让我降生在这样一个时代,可以亲眼目睹这个时代所有的发生(切肤之言啊)。而 且,我也很高兴他让我来到了孟菲斯,我还记得,对的,我还记得以前,那个时候黑人们四处 奔走,然而,正如 Ralph 所经常说的,那个时候黑人根本就不成气候,他们的游行是无关痛痒 的(scratching where they didn't itch, and laughing when they were not tickled. 这句不好翻 译,不过大概意思应该是如此吧,希望高手可以给以指正。),但是那样的时代已经彻底过去了, 我们现在已经今时不同往日了,我们决心在主的国度里争取我们应得的权利,这也是我们所做 的所有事的终极目的。我们并不是要和什么人进行任何的消极的抗争以及进行任何消极的争 吵,我们只是想说我们要做人,我们只是决心要做真正的国民。我们只是想说----我们只是想说 我们都是主的子民,正因为如此正因为我们都是主的孩子,所以我们不要在压迫下活下去。那 么在当今这样一个伟大的历史时期,我说的所有这些意味着什么呢?意味着我们得团结在一 起,我们要团结在一起而且要保持统一。要知道,在埃及当法老想要延长他的奴隶统治时,他 有他钟爱的,钟爱的一套手段,是什么呢?他让奴隶们相互搏斗,但是一旦奴隶们聚在一处, 法老的宫廷就出了事,他奴役奴隶的日子也就到了头。也就是说一旦奴隶们团结起来,奴隶制 度的终结也就开始了。现在就让我们团结起来吧。 其次,让我们看看到底有哪些问题。问题是不公平,问题是孟菲斯在相关事务的处理上,拒绝 公平和诚恳地对待他的公仆,他的环卫工人。现在,我们必须将注意力集中到这个问题上。这 种问题通常都会伴随有一些暴力在里面,你们都知道前几天发生的事情,而报纸上只轻描淡写 地说到砸坏了窗户。我看了这些文章,基本上都没有注意到这样一个事实,1300个环卫工人在 罢工,因为孟菲斯对他们很不公平,而且 Loeb 市长急需一位大夫帮他看看,他们没有注意到 这样的一个事实。所以,我们要再次游行,而且我们也必须游行,以促使这件事得到应有的公 平解决,而且,我们要让大家爱看到有1300个上帝的孩子正在受难,他们经常挨饿,艰难地熬 过一个又一个黑暗可怕的夜晚,不知道这样的日子什么时候是个头,这就是我们面临的问题。 我们必须告知政府:我们坚信,这个问题很快会得到应得的解决的。因为一旦人们意识到自己 所做的事是正确的,而且愿意为之牺牲的时候,不达胜利是不会罢休的。任何恶意的举动都不 能使我们停步。在非暴力行进中,我们很成功的解除了警察的武力与警惕,他们不知道如何应 对,我经常看到他们茫然的神情。我还记得上次在阿拉巴马州的伯明翰,那个时候在那场激烈 伟大的斗争中,每天我们都要从第16街的浸礼会出发,我们成百上千地走上大街,而“公 牛”Connor(伯明翰的公共安全专员 July 11, 1897, Selma, Alabama,USA – March 10, 1973) 命令警察放狗,他们照做了,但是我们走到狗的面前说,“难道没有人可以让我们后退了吗?”“公 牛”继续道,“把消防水管打开。”正如某天晚上我跟你们说的,“公牛”不懂历史,他是懂一点道 理,但是不会懂得我们所了解的精神战胜(内在的一种力量)的。这种力量之火水是无法浇熄 的。于是我们走到水喉前,我们从来就了解水,如果我们是浸礼会教友或者别的教派,我们曾 受过水的沁润,如果我们是卫理公会派教徒,或是其它什么教派的,我们曾被水泼洒过,但是 我们了解水,水并不能阻止我们。所以我们继续前行,在狗前面,我们看着狗前进;在水喉前 面,我们看着水喉前进。同时我们还唱起“在我头顶我看见了自由之光在那天穹中”。之后我们 会被带到囚车里(在 NHK 映像的世纪中可以看到这种囚车)。有时候,我们会像罐头里的沙丁 鱼一样被堆在里面,然而,他们还是会把我们塞进去。而老布尔会说:“把他们带走。”他们也 这样做了。而我们即便是进到囚车里,也仍一遍又一遍地高唱:“我们终将胜利。”时不时的我 们会被抓到监狱里,我们会看到监狱里的人被我们的祈祝,被我们的话语言谈,被我们的歌声 所打动,而望向监狱的窗外。这就是力量,这种力量是“公牛”所无法可想而予以打击的。于是 我们最终让“公牛”变成了阉牛。我们也赢得了我们在伯明翰的胜利。 接下来我们也要在孟菲斯这样行动。所以,我希望大家在我们星期一游行的时候能加入我们。 现在我们来说说强制令。我们现在有个强制令,明天上午我们就要去法院,与这个不合法的, 不合章程的强制令作斗争。而我们要跟美国说的是:“忠实于你在宪章上所说的一切。”要是我 活在中国、或者甚至俄国,抑或任何一个极权主义国家,或许我可以理解某些不合法的强制令, 也可以理解他们对第一修正法案中的对某些基本权利的剥夺。因为他们没有申明那些权利与自 由。但是,在美国我读到集会的自由,在美国我读到演讲的自由,在美国我读到出版的自由, 在美国我读到美国之所以伟大就在于它是捍卫一切正义的权威。因此,正如我所言,警犬和水 喉不能阻挡我们前进的步伐。我们也不会为任何所谓的强制令所阻挠。我们要继续前行。我们 需要你们每一个人。要知道,能看到你们这些人,你们这些福音的传布师们齐聚一堂,在我是 多么美妙的事啊,简直就是一幅令人心驰神往的画卷哪!除了牧师之外,还有什么样的人能更 衷心而明确地表达人类内心深处的期待与渴望呢?然而,作为牧师骨子里必须有一股生命之 火。(这句不知道怎么翻译:Somehow the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones.)一旦发现不公平的事,他必须说出来。不管怎么说,牧师必须像阿莫斯(Amos:圣 经里面的先知)一样,说道,“当上帝传道的时候谁能预言呢?”(这句不太懂 When God speaks who can but prophesy)还有,“让正义如水般自然流淌,让真理如快乐的小溪般奔流。”不管怎 么说,作为牧师他必须心存我主地说(say with Jesus),“主的灵光洒在我身上,因为他选定了 我,他选定了我去解决那些可怜的人的苦难。”这里,我要推荐一些高尚的人,希望牧师们能听 从他们的领导:詹姆斯·罗生(James Lawson),他参与这场运动已有些年了,还被抓进了监狱, 并因此被冯德比尔特大学(Vanderbilt University)开除学籍。但它仍一如既往地参加斗争,为 了他热爱的人们能得到应有的权利而斗争。教士拉尔夫·杰克森(Reverend Ralph Jackson), 比 利·奇利斯(Billy Kiles)。我还可以这样一直列举下去,但是时间不允许我这样做。但是我很感 谢他们每一个人,并且,我也希望你们也能感谢他们,因为一直以来,牧师们除了提升自己的 修养之外,很少过问外界的事。能看到 A RELEVANT MINISTRY 我总是很高兴。当然,我们 常说“很久远的白长袍们”,这在象征意义上也没有什么不好,但最终,眼下人们还是想穿我们 正穿着的套装,衣服,鞋子什么的。我们总说,“街上流淌着满是牛奶与蜂蜜”,这当然也不错, 但是上帝同时也命令我们去关注一下这里的贫民窟,以及这些一天三餐都没有着落的他的子 民。我们总在说新耶路撒冷,这当然也对,但迟早有一天,上帝的传教士们,一定会讲到新纽 约,新亚特兰大,新费城,新洛杉矶,新孟菲斯的。这也是我们现在必须做的事情。 而眼下我们必须做的另外一件事是,一定要将我们的外部直接行动(即示威游行)与背后的经 济支持牢牢挂钩。以经济的力量为后盾以保证游行的持续进行。当然,以单个人来讲,我们是 很穷,和美国的白人社会相较起来,我们也确实很穷,但是不要忘了当我们凑合在一起,这意 味只要我们黑人团结一心,我们比世界上的任何国家都要富有,除了九国外(不知道什么意思 with the exception of nine)。这你有想过吗?在除了美国、苏联、大不列颠、西德、法国,还 有其他几个国家之后,黑人凑集起来,比世界上大多数国家都要有钱,我们每年的收入是300 多亿美元,这比美国一年的出口总额还要多,比加拿大一年的财政预算还要多,这你知道吗? 如果我们懂得如何共用分配的话,这是实实在在的力量。懂得这种力量之后,我们不必到处和 人争论,我们不必漫天诅咒,不必四处危言恐吓,我们不需要砖头瓶子,不需要自制炸弹,我 们只需要到这些店铺外,到这些大型工厂门口,说:“上帝让我们过来这里,跟你说,你没有公 平对待他的子民,而我们来这里正是要让你把公平对待提上你的议事日程的第一项考虑。听着, 要是你不打算这么做的话,我们也有个必须遵守的议事日程,那就是从你的经济支持中退出。” 因此,由于这个原因,今晚我要求大家集会散场之后,告诉你的邻居不要买孟菲斯的可口可乐, 顺便告诉他们不要买 Sealtest 公司的牛奶,不要买---另外一种面包叫什么面包?---Wonder 牌 面包之外的?那家公司叫什么来着,Jesse 的?告诉他们不要买 Hart's 面包,因为杰斯·杰克逊 (Jesse Jackson)说过,目前为止,只有像垃圾一样生活的人才会感到痛苦,我们现在也要 让他尝尝痛苦的滋味。我们之所以选择这几家公司因为他们在雇用政策上很不公平。我们选择 他们,是因为他们能开启对话的进程,他们能满足这些罢工的人的需求与权利。他们能到城里 到市中心,告诉 Loeb 市长怎样做才是对的。 我们要做的还不仅仅如此,我们必须加强我们自己的公共机构,我要求你们把市中心的钱从银 行里取出来,然后存到 Tri-State 银行里,孟菲斯需要一场 bank-in 运动。所以,到储蓄存款社 去,这些事情我们并不是只要求你们去做,我们自己在 SCLC 也同样在做。Hooks 法官还有一 些相关的人会告诉你们我们在 SCLC 在储蓄存款社的账号。我们只是要求你们跟着我们做下去, 把你的钱存到里面。在孟菲斯有六、七家黑人保险公司,把你们在那儿的保险金取出来,我们 还需要一次 insurance-in 运动。 这里我们有几件实际可行的事要做。我们正在建起一个更大的基金,而同时我们也在给政府制 造压力,这压力有分量足以使政府在行动时有所顾忌。我在这里要求你们跟着将之进行到底。 总之,请允许我跟你们说,我们必须投身这场斗争中直至最终胜利。要知道没有什么事情比半 途而废更让人悲哀的了,我们必须看到这场斗争在孟菲斯取得胜利。并且,当我们在外游行的 时候,我们需要你的到场,即便是这意味着旷工,即便是这意味着旷课,请你一定要过来。多 关心你在罢工的黑人兄弟,可能你不在罢工,但是我们要么一起享受成功的喜悦,要么一起承 受失败的痛苦。让我们养成一种冒险的无私精神吧!有一天,有个人来到耶稣跟前,他想问一 些关于永生的很重要的问题,就此刁难耶稣,以表明他懂的比耶稣还要多,从而冷不防地难住 主耶稣。现在这个问题本可以简单地用哲学和神学的论辩解答,但是耶稣当即将这个问题从虚 化的半空中拽了下来,然后将之放在了从耶路撒冷到耶利哥的危险的蜿蜒的山路上。他说,一 个人为一群盗贼洗劫与暴力,然后你们记得吧,一个利未人(Levite)和一个教士碰巧从另一 面经过,而他们都没有停下来帮忙。之后,又来了一个别一族的人,他从坐骑上下来,决定不 能等到别人来帮助这个人(这句也不懂 decided not to be compassionate by proxy),而是来 到了那个受伤的人身边,给予了急救,拯救了这个需要帮助的人。耶稣最后说道,“这样才是好 人,这样才是了不起的人啊!他有设身处地的心灵,能替别人着想。”我们运用我们的想象力努 力地揣度一下,为什么那个利未人和那个教士没有停下来帮忙呢?通常我们会说他们正赶着参 加教会会议---基督教会的聚会---他们必须加紧前往耶路撒冷,那样的话他们才不会迟到。而其 他的时候我们会考虑到,有一条宗教律令:“一个要参加宗教仪式的人,在仪式进行前24小时内 不能接触人体。而偶尔我们又会猜想是否是这个原因:他们不是去耶路撒冷,也不是去耶利哥, 而是去组织一个“耶利哥道路改进会”。有这个可能性。或许他们认为从根本上解决问题,比以 个人努力反而陷入麻烦的泥沼要好。 但是我要告诉你们我的想象力给我的启示。很可能其实是这些人都觉得害怕,你看,耶利哥之 路是一条危险的路途。我还记得我和我的妻子第一次到耶路撒冷的情形。我们租了一辆车然后 从耶路撒冷开往耶利哥,但我们上路之后,我就跟我妻子说道:“我现在明白为什么耶稣要拿这 条路来作比喻了。”这是一条蜿蜒曲折的道路,非常有利于埋伏,你从耶路撒冷出发,这大约是 1200英里,也即海平面以上1200英尺。而当15或者20分钟之后,你到达耶利哥时,你却在海 平面以下2200英尺。那真是一条危险的路途啊!在耶稣的时代,它就以“血腥之途(Bloody Pass)” 而为人所知。而且你知道,可能那个利未人和那个教士检查了地上的那个人,而怀疑那些盗贼 是否仍在附近,抑或是他们认为这个人仅仅是在伪装,他只是装作被抢劫了被打伤了,目的是 为了抓住他们,引诱他们从而快速而简单的捉住他们。所以那个利未人的第一个问题是:如果 我停下来帮助这个人的话,有什么事会发生在我身上?但是接着那个好心的撒玛利亚人 (Samaritan)过来了,他颠倒着这个问题:如果我不停下来帮助这个人的话他会怎么样?这 就是今晚摆在我们面前的问题,不是“如果我停下来帮助这些环卫工人的话,我的工作会有什么 影响?”不是“如果我停下来帮助这些环卫工人的话,那些我作为一个牧师花在办公室里的一天 接一天,一个礼拜接一个礼拜的时间会怎么样?”问题不是:“如果我帮助了这个需要帮助的人, 我会怎么样?”问题是:“如果我不帮助这些环卫工人的话,他会怎么样?”这才是我们的问题。 今晚让我们以更高的积极性起来反抗吧!让我们以更大的决心站起来!让我们在这伟大的时代 继续前行,在这有机会使美国成为真正的美国的时代!我们有这样一个机会使美国成为一个更 好的国家!同时,我要再一次感谢仁慈的主,让我能和你们在一起前行! 你们应该知道,几年前,那时我在纽约,为我的第一本书签名,当我坐在那里签名的时候,一 个精神有问题的黑人妇女过来了,我听到他问的唯一一个问题就是:“你是马丁路德金吗?”但 是我正埋头签名,我回答道:“是啊。”接着下一秒我就感觉到我的胸部被什么东西刺中了,在 我意识到的时候我已经被这个精神有问题的妇女刺中了。我即刻被送到了 Harlem 医院,这是 一个黑沉沉的礼拜六的下午。那柄刀穿透了我的胸部,通过 X 光片可以看到刀刃正好从主动脉 的边缘穿过,一旦主动脉被刺穿,你就会被你的血所淹没,也就是你的生命将终结。第二天早 上纽约时报上登出来了,如果我打了喷嚏的话,我就会死掉。四天之后,在手术之后,在我的 胸口被打开刀刃被取出来之后,他们允许我坐在轮椅上在医院里四处走走,他们允许我看一些 从美国乃至世界各地邮寄来的信件,善意的来信。我看了一些,但是只有一封我永远都不会忘 记。我收到了一封总统先生和副总统先生的来信,但我已经忘了信上说了什么了。我还接受了 纽约市长的访问以及他的一封信,我也几经忘了这封信上说的什么了。但是有一封信,来自一 个小姑娘,她在白原高校(White Plains High School)念书,我看了那封信,我终生难忘。信 很简单:“亲爱的金博士:我是一个在白原高校廿九年级的学生,”她说,“这虽然没有什么关系, 但我还是要说出来,我是个白人女孩,我在报纸上看到你的不幸,你的遭遇。并且我读到如果 你打了喷嚏的话,就会死掉,而我写这封信给你其实只是想告诉你,我真的很高兴你没有打喷 嚏。” 今晚我想说,今晚,我想说,我也很高兴我没有打喷嚏,因为如果那个时候我打了喷嚏的话, 1960年我就不会出现在这里,当时整个南部的(黑人)学生开始了在午餐台边坐着吃饭,而我 知道当他们可以坐着吃饭的时候,他们正真正抬起头来实现着美国梦中最美妙的精神。他们带 着整个国家回归到伟大的民主的源泉,这源泉由建国者们在《独立宣言》和《宪法》中深深挖 掘。那个时候我打了喷嚏的话,1961年,我不会出现在这里,那时我们决定搭上自由之车,终 止在州与州之间旅行时存在的隔离。如果那个时候我打了喷嚏的话,1962年我不会出现在这里, 当时,在佐治亚的奥尔巴尼,人们决定挺直他们的腰杆,而一旦人们挺直了腰板,他们才会有 所建树,因为人不能扛着背前行,除非他的背断掉了。如果那个时候我打了喷嚏的话,1963年 我不会出现在这里,那时,阿拉巴马伯明翰的黑人们唤起了这个国家的良知,使民权法案获得 了通过。如果那个时候我打了喷嚏的话,1964年我不会有机会告诉美国我一直以来的一个梦想。 如果那个时候我打了喷嚏的话,我不会在阿拉巴马塞尔玛目睹一场伟大的运动。如果那个时候 我打了喷嚏的话,我不会在孟菲斯看到一个团结了那么多饱受苦难的兄弟姐妹的社团。我真的 很高兴我没有打喷嚏。 而他们告诉我---现在,没有什么关系了现在,真的,不管现在发生什么都没有关系了。今天早 上,我离开亚特兰大,当我们登上飞机时,我们有六个人,飞行员通过扩音装置说道,真的很 抱歉耽误到了大家的时间,但是我们现在有马丁·路德·金博士在飞机上,为了确保所有的袋子, 包都检查到,为了确保飞机不会有任何故障。我们得认真检查所有的东西。我们昨晚整晚都在 保护防卫这架飞机。然后,我来到了孟菲斯。而有一些人就开始谈论存在的威胁,或谈论外在 的威胁,我们的病态的白人兄弟会对我采取什么样的报复。 呃,我不知道现在会发生什么事。我们前面还有一段艰难的路要走。但是对我来说,真的已经 没有什么关系了。因为我已登上了人生的顶巅,我不介意别的事情了。像你们每个人一样,我 也想活得长久一点,长寿当然有它吸引人的地方。但是对此我已不再介意了。我只想完成上帝 给予我的意愿。是他让我登上了人生的顶巅,我已经四处都检视过了,我已看到了上帝允诺我 们的福地。可能我不能同你们一道到达那里,但是今晚我要你们知道,作为一个民族我们一定 会抵达上帝所允诺的福地。所以今晚我很开心,我已经无所畏惧了,我也不怕任何人的迫害, 因为我的双眼已清楚感受到了上帝降下的灵光!!