Unit 1 Language in mission
Text A An impressive English lesson
Ex.1 Understanding the text
1、Because he is tired of listening to his father and he is not interested in grammar rules.
2、The civilization of Greece and the glory of Roman architecture are so marvelous and remarkable that they should be described at least in a brief account; however, what the student could do was only one single utterance :“whoa!” without any any specific comment.
3、Because the schools fail to set high standards of language proficiency. They only teach a little grammar and less advanced vocabulary. And the younger teachers themselves have little knowledge of the vital structures of language.
4、Because teaching grammar is not an easy job and most of the students will easily get bored if it’s not properly dealt with.
5、He familiarized his son with different parts of speech in a sentence and discussed their specific grammatical functions including how to use adverbs to describe verbs.
6、Because the son had never heard about the various names and functions of words in an English sentence before.
7、The author uses “road map”and “car”to describe grammar and vocabulary. Here,“road map”is considered as grammar and “car”as vocabulary.
8、Since the subjunctive mood his son used is a fairly advanced grammar structure, the interjection“whoa!”reflects the tremendous pride the father had toward his son; it also reflects the author’s humor in using the word because it was once used by his student, though in two different situations and with two different feelings.
Ex.3 Words in use
1.condense 2.exceed 3.deficit 4.exposure 5.asset
6.adequate 7.competent 8.adjusting 9.precisely 10.beneficial
Ex.4 Word building
-al/-ial: managerial/editorial/substance/survival/tradition/margin -cy : consistency/accuracy/efficient
-y : recovery/ministry/assembly
Ex.5 Word building
1.editorial 2.recovery 3.accuracy 4.substance 5.managerial
6.margin 7.assembly 8.Ministry 9.survival 10.tradition 11.consistency
12.efficient Ex.6 Banked cloze
1-5: L C J A I 6-10: O N E H F
Ex.7 Expressions in use
1.feel obliged to 2.be serious about 3.run into 4.distinguish between 5.thrust upon 6.was allergic to 7.get lost 8.be attracted to 9.make sense 10.looked upon as
Ex.8 Structured writing
Some bookworms in my dormitory often spend hours reading their “Bible”, Practical English Grammar, and do a lot of exercises in that book , but I don’t care about it at all. My assumption is since I have never learned Chinese grammar, what’s the sense of learning English grammar? In fact, English grammar has always been a big headache to me.
English grammar is very complicated because, unlike Chinese, there are many verb tenses. Even stranger than verb tenses, English grammar also contains something very confusing. For example, I don’t remember how many times my middle school teacher tried to“impose”the differences between used to and be used to on us. Sometimes he would go on with the explanation for 20 minutes or so. He even summarized the differences by listing three or four points for us to memorize. However, they could never stay in my head . I don’t remember how many times I got it wrong with the sentences containing used to or be used to on my exams . I was really confused with these two phrases,and I can never get them right.
In brief, I’m allergic to learning English grammar. Curiously, I just wonder if the native speakers of English have a microcomputer in their brain to help them utter the two phrases promptly with just a click of their brain mouse!
Ex.9 E-C Translation
Ex.10 C-E Translation
Chinese calligraphy is a unique art and the unique art treasure in the world. The formation and development of the Chinese calligraphy is closely related to the emergence and evolution of Chinese characters. In this long evolutionary process, Chinese characters have not only played an important role in exchanging ideas and transmitting culture but also developed into a unique art form. Calligraphic
works well reflect calligraphers’ personal feelings, knowledge, self-cultivation, personality, and so forth, thus there is an expression that “seeing the calligrapher’s handwriting is like seeing the person”. As one of the treasures of Chinese culture, Chinese calligraphy shines splendidly in the world’s treasure house of culture and art.
Text B The great journey of learning
2. Understanding the text
D. 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. D
4. Words in use
mysterious 2. desperate 3. devise 4. negotiate 5. recalled
6. specifically 7. depict 8. Ignorance 9. Expand 10 confusion
5. Expressions in use
apply to 2. in a bid to 3. end up 4. speaking of
5. get hold of 6. appealed to 7. leaving ..behind 8. focus on
EX. 6 Sentence structure
even though it is important of the students to have a deep understanding of the texts, it doesn’t make any sense to read texts word for word from the beginning to the end
as it is a matter of little importance to us, it doesn’t make much sense to argue out which is wrong or right or which is better or worse
it makes no sense to compel children to obey their parents; instead, we should try to tell them what is right and what is wrong.
II might as well have stayed at home.
We might as well have taken the train home
So he might as well have told me all about it .
essential framework 2. distinctive difference 3 high standards
4 valuable possessions 5 considerable frustration 6 acquire knowledge 7 overcome deficiencies 8 sketch thoughts 9 devise a scheme
1 essential framework 2 proper vocabulary 3 excellent control 4 language deficit
5 high standards 6 language proficiency 7 acquire knowledge
8 competent communication 9 overcome deficiencies 10 sketch thoughts 11 effective communication 12 advanced vocabulary
Unit 2 College-The ladder to success
Text A The humanities: Out of date?
1. because English or history majors are considered less competitive when the job market is shrinking, and they have to study something that can help them more easily locate their future jobs.
2. because as the tuition is climbing higher and higher, many students have run away from studying the humanities and toward “hard” skills that they think will lead to employment.
3. since more students are now taking job-oriented courses, libraries, where students of liberal arts used to study, are getting less popular than before; in contrast, labs are getting more eye-catching because students of science and engineering do experiments and research there.
4. because this inner drive that can be either constructive or destructive is so mysterious and powerful that it has attracted many people to speculate on it. From ancient times, these men and women developed artistic “languages” in the form of story, music, myth, painting, architecture, sculpture, landscape and traditions, which from the very foundation of civilization.
5. Studying the humanities improves your ability to read and write, makes you familiar with the language of emotion and the creative process, and, more importantly, provides you with a wide scope of possibilities that are open to you.
6. Because in modern life, an ideal capacity for establishing one’s career is to have both technical knowledge and inner insight, not just one without the other.
7. “Well-rounded human beings” are those who have insight and understand the passions, hopes and dreams common to all humanity.
8. Since many people who once studied the humanities became famous in their career, the author implies that if students spend more time studying the humanities, they could surely become successful in the future as well.
1. promotes 2. accelerate 3. mystery 4. insight 5. boost 6. analysis
7. calculate 8. barriers 9. destruction 10. prospect
Promising Bearing Housing Objective
Offend Exclude Excess Execute
1. excess 2. bearing 3. objective 4. intensify 5. execute
6. promising 7. exclude 8. identity 9 offend 10. housing
1-5 CHDJB 6-10 LMGFA
1. are liable to 2. in favor of 3. is bound to
4. speculate about 5. invested…with 6. stand up for
7. in the form of 8. prepared for 9. in the company of
10 in succession
In recent years, with the development of Internet technology, the construction of digital education resources of our country has made great achievements. Many universities have set up their own digital learning platforms, and digital teaching is playing an increasingly important role in education. Compared with the traditional way of teaching, the digital way has a lot of advantages. On one hand, digital teaching makes global sharing of teaching resources possible; on the other hand, it expands the learner’s study time and space to learn, allowing people to get access to the digital virtual schools through the Internet anytime and anywhere. These advantages make it possible for people to shift from one-time learning to lifelong learning.
Unit 2 Text B What college bring us?
1. Main idea: College has never been magical for everyone.
Major detail: More high school graduates don’t fit the pattern of college.
2. Main idea： We need to revise our attitudes and reform the system. Major detail: we only judge things based on our own college experiences.
3. Main idea: College education seems to have wasted time and accumulated debt.
Major detail: Close to 80 percent of new jobs can be performed by someone without a college degree.
1C 2D 3C 4A 5D 6B 7B 8A
1. It’s very true because the job market is becoming more competitive. Yes, without a college degree, one can end up with nothing to do.
Sure, college brings students knowledge and personal growth.
No, it’s not necessary to get a college degree to have a better career.
Disagree, college is too expensive now for students and family to afford.
2. More competitive.
3. Traditional ideology.
More promising future.
High expectations of their children.
4. Worth their money because it’s an investment that will pay off later.
A waste of their money because the tuition is too high.
Not sure if they’ll profit from the large sum they invested.
5. Analytical ability.
Critical thing skills.
1. enroll 2 revise 3accumulate 4 accorded 5 evaluate
6. prime 7 confirm 8 shrinking 9 sufficient 10 recruit
1. bother to 2.is available to 3. been compelled to 4.described…as
4. exposed…to 6.rather than 7 have something to do with
8 for its own sake
1. A teacher, no matter how knowledgeable he is, cannot teach his students everything they want to know.
2. No matter where you travel, you can always find someone to communicate with in English since English is an important language.
3. No matter what work a person is doing, if he gives it his best each day, he creates lots of happiness for himself.
1. Although the number of applications is small, there is little doubt that the program will help the students who really need financial aid.
2. There is no doubt that computer crime is a very serious problem, so people think that all hackers need to be punished for their actions.
3. Though the boy worked very hard and finally successfully passed the exam, there is no doubt that overwork and too much worry caused his illness. Ex.8
1 promising 2 worsens 3 shrinking 4 dominant 5 land 6 great
7 well-rounded 8 creative 9 elegant 10 constructive 11 skills 12 make
Unit 3 Discovery of a new life stage
1. Because people in different life stages are confronted with different problems and setbacks and each group of people in a particular time period have their particular worries and pains.
2.The norm refers to the general consensus that as soon as students graduated from college, they would enter adulthood and be able to find an ideal job leading to their career.
3. They are recognized as a new life stage that comes after high school graduation, continues through college and leads to starting a family and having a career.
4. Because nowadays so many young people are following this new lifestyle that it has become a trend. As long as the economic situation continues its long slide, this new stage is unavoidable.
5. Unlike their parents, a large number of young people are now delaying marriage, child bearing, and even employment during their odyssey years.
6. They often resent the pressure they’re feeling and keep a distance from their parents or even run away from home. Many also resort to computer games, iPods, iPhones, or iPads.
7. Their parents feel more anxious and upset seeing their children’s odyssey years continue to stretch without a clear direction.
8. The author thinks as people are getting to know the odyssey years better, both parents and their children can tackle this phase better. For parents, they can understand their children more; for children, they can explore and discover themselves with a positive attitude.
1. peculiar 2. radical 3. phase 4. sensible 5. predict
6. labeled 7. resent 8. witnessed 9. equivalent 10. parallels
Chaotic dramatic academy
Depression detection erosion
Classification confuse cooperate dictate
1. journal 2. chaotic 3. cooperate 4. erosion 5. dramatic 6. confuse
7. academy 8. rightists 9. depression 10. dictate 11. detection 12. classification
K E A C L I G N H O
1. saddled with 2. back off 3. gives way to 4. resorted to
5. make allowances for 6. wonder at 7. prior to 8. based upon/on
The odyssey years are certainly a very complicated phase of life for young people. Not only do these young people need to overcome many difficulties, they also have to face many challenges from their parents. The differences between parents and children can be well observed in their completely different attitudes and views.
First, they differ in their attitude toward life. Parents always wonder what has gone wrong with the new generation. They feel that during their time, young boys and girls were better behaved, more obedient and had greater respect for elders. Young people, on the other hand, feel that they are capable enough to learn on their own rather than lean heavily on the older generation for guidance. Young people do not like to be spoon-fed by their parents.
The differences also appear in the way the two generations look at things. For example, the parents’ generation never understood Elvis and the Beatles. Because they couldn’t understand what was going on, they were frequently opposed to them and saw rock as “the devil’s music”. Young people, however, are crazy about the modern music and would love to listen to it for a hundred times a day. Wherever they go, they’ll have their iPod with them.
In conclusion, it’s very difficult for parents and their youngsters to get along due to their distinctive attitudes and the way they view things. To fill this gap, both parents and their grown children need to be more understanding to each other.
与许多其他文化相比， 美国家庭成员的主要职责，不是在社会上或经济上提高整个家庭的地位。 人们通常认为，什么是对个人最好的要比什么是对家庭最好的更为重要。与自由相伴而来的是照顾自己的责任，因为所选择的自由承载了责任，即必须接受自己的选择所带来的后果。许多美国人给他们的孩子很多的自由，因为他们希望孩子们能够独立和自力更生。在美国人强调个人自由的同时，父母与孩子间平等的信念也对美国家庭产生了巨大的影响。
Filial piety is the basic code of ethics in the ancient Chinese society. Chinese people consider filial piety as the essence of a person’s integrity, family harmony, and the nation’s well-being. With filial piety being the core of Confucian ethics, it has been the moral standard for the Chinese society to maintain the family relationship for thousands of years. It’s undoubtedly a traditional Chinese virtue. The culture of filial piety is a complex concept, rich in content and wide in range. It concludes not only cultural ideas but also institutional etiquettes. Generally speaking, it refers to the obligation of children to their parents required by the society, including respect, care, support for the elderly and so forth. Filial piety is fundamental to the ancient “Oriental civilization”.
Unit 3 Text B Finding my way back home
Understanding the text 2
1. A 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. B 6. D 7. D 8. C
Words in use 4
1. hollow 2. restless 3. demonstrate 4. exiled 5. miserable
6. commercial 7. hesitated 8. erupt 9. refine 10. Feasible
Expression in use 5
1. are tired of 2 fall into 3 be strict with 4 not amount to much
5 drifted off 6 bonded with 7 resign himself to 8 surrender themselves to
Sentence structure 6
1. The man walked slowly, with one hand pulling with effort at his coat and the other holding tightly on to his trousers.
2. With more and more students joining it, the new club soon expanded and became the largest one on the campus.
3. With the Internet becoming increasingly popular for young people to connect with their friends, letter writing is becoming less and less common.
1. With the traditional values in their heads, most parents found it hard to accept their children’s thinking.
2. With this kind of jeans out of fashion, young people do not like to wear them any more now.
3. With the differences in their skills and abilities, the young and the old seem to live in two very different worlds..
1 fluid 2 contemporary 3 radical 4 enormous 5 prideful 6 competitive
7 rebellious 8 transition 9 unavoidable 10 traditional 11 unique 12 peculiar
Unit 4 Dance with love
Text A College sweethearts
1. The author uses this sentence to tell her own love story. She didn’t expect that she would end up marrying Butch. He became her boyfriend just because of her wish to find a cute boyfriend. She didn’t really want to marry him at the beginning.
2. Because when she met up with Butch the first time, he kept staring at her all night long. He flattered her and fell in love with her at first sight. He looked really wild or maybe even dangerous.
3. Because Butch had a “bad boy image” which was very tempting to a lot of girls, and his wild, dynamic personality was a little frightening. She didn’t know whether she could be getting along with him.
4. Though she always had an excellent reputation in respect to her schoolwork, she thought that her college life was dull, with no fun. In her opinion, college was supposed to be a time of great learning and also of some fun.
5. Because she was becoming more interested in him and she wanted to find out if she was the “right” date in the eyes of Butch, thinking of herself as a traditional girl.
6. It means that Butch didn’t want to do anything to change his bad situation. The word fate here refers to the fact that Butch was going to be expelled from the university.
7. Though Butch was wild and would sometimes display directly his love in front of her friends, he was always a perfect gentleman at his core. And they had a pure and responsible relationship for seven years.
8. The author and her husband’s faithful journey of love that started with a causal attraction but bloomed into a mature love proves that romantic love can last long through the ups and downs in life.
1. confess 2. tempting 3. commence 4. coordinating 5. granted
6. deserved 7. displayed 8. consequently 9. lodged 10. proceed Ex. 4
Contented compress complicate
Identification justification qualification
Illustration exhibit extension
Interpretation plantation perception
1. qualifications 2. perception 3. plantations 4. compressed 5. exhibit
6. contented 7. interpretation 8. complicate 9. illustration 10. extension
11. identification 12. justification
N B G I H L E M K C
1. on her behalf 2. took the liberty of 3. immune to 4. were filled with
5. fall in love with 6. Expelled from 7. been pessimistic about 8. go along with
July 7th on the Chinese calendar is Chinese Qixi Festival, the most romantic of all the traditional Chinese holidays. Every year, some big businesses organize various activities, and young people send gifts to their lovers. As a result, the Qixi Festival is considered to be Chinese “Valentine’s Day”. The Qixi Festival is derived from the legend of Cowherd and Weaving Maid. The legend holds that on this particular night every year the Weaving Maid in heaven meets with Cowherd. So, people can see Cowherd and Weaving Maid meeting in the Milky Way on the night of Qixi. On this night, girls would also beg Weaving Maid for some wisdom for a happy marriage. But, with the changing of times, these activities are diminishing. All that remains is the legend of Cowherd and Weaving Maid, a sign of faithful love, continuously circulated among the folk.
Unit 4 Text B Saving the date
1. They became romantically attracted to each other. (para.5)
2. share the dating expense or split the money with the date (para.6)
3. sharing the cost of a meal in a restaurant ( para.7)
4. a tight and uncomfortable feeling because of nervousness (para.12)
5. mark the date on the calendar (para.14)
Understanding the text
1. D 2. C 3. A 4. C
5. A 6. D 7. B 8. C
1. Males because that’s the norm.
Males because men are expected to do it that way.
Both since they are on an equal basis.
Both since the traditional way is out of date.
2. Men and women are treated equally in this way.
Females are not considered inferior to males.
Both men and women feel more comfortable.
3. Won’t feel embarrassed when taking the initiative to date.
Won’t put stress on either males or females.
Will widen the social circle and give opportunity to make more friends. Won’t feel obligated to keep a long-term relationship.
4. Both men and women can pay for a date.
Both men and women can take the initiative.
People are free to choose a casual or formal date.
5. Behave with respect for each other.
Be honest with each other.
Be considerate and helpful to each other.
Words in use
1. conveying 2. Forged 3. Thriving 4. Abnormal 5. frowning
6. thrilled 7. Reckoned 8. Clarified 9. Conquer 10. concealing
Expressions in use
1. make contact with 2. took the initiative 3. are inclined to 4. thrive on
5. indifferent to 6. whip out 7. in the pit of her stomach 8. chip in
1. With online learning, there is less study in a regular classroom and more time to spend by yourself.
2. With regular exercise, you’ll have less mental stress and more physical strength.
3. With the new highway, there is less traffic and more comfort for drivers on the road.
1. Ambitious as he is, he has never been able to accomplish his goal and make his parents feel proud of him
2. Embarrassed as they were, they remained positive throughout their travels and learned from the mistakes they made along the way.
3. Hard as she tried, Jane failed to introduce her father to the joys of rock music.
1. casual attraction 2. healthy friendship 3. romantic relationship
4. dynamic personality 5. mature love 6. mutual friends
1. college sweetheart 2. take the initiative
3. romantic relationship 4. steady boyfriend
5. casual attraction 6. fairy-tale romance
7. exceedingly embarrassed 8. madly in love
9. healthy friendship 10. traditional upbringing
11. mature love 12. mutual friends
Unit5 The money game
Text A Spend or save-The student’s dilemma
1. contradict 2. paradox 3. perspective
4. explicit 5. suspended 6. derive
7. defy 8. retains 9. manipulating
1. concentrated 2. messenger
3. civilized 4. Constitution
5. browser 6. objection
7. expansion 8. consume
9. definition 10. cultivation
11. reaction 12. negotiation
1 B 2D 3O 4E 5F
6C 7K 8H 9N 10I
1. referred to 2 at odds with
3 put off 4 consulting with
5 do their utmost 6 took stock of
7 on track 8 take in
It is often said that whatever wealth one may have will be gone quickly if the person only spends. However, some people think the purpose of life is to enjoy moment, so they spend all they have earned. Even though Bryan and Peter are close friends, their spending habits are very different.
Bryan is very careful about using his pocket money. He only spends money when it’s necessary. For example, when his pocket money is only $50,he may spend $20 on necessary stationery for schoolwork. He will try to deposit the remaining $30 in his savings account. In his opinion, though the amount is small, it will help him for a possible rainy day since people never know what could happen in the future.
Unlike Bryan, Peter usually spends money at will. He often purchases expensive electronic products such as an iPhone and iPad. Sometimes, he might buy himself an expensive brand-name shirt or a pair of expensive brand- name shoes. Different from Byan, he never deposits extra money in a bank after meeting his basic needs. To him, saving money in a bank is something silly because he believes that he can always earn big money after he gets a decent job in the
All in all, Bryan and Peter are very different in the way they spend money. Spending money wisely and saving extra money for future urgent needs enable students to manage their finance and fully concentrate on their study. They will also derive great pleasure from the way they handle their money.
大发现年代，也被称为大勘探年代，是欧洲进行全球勘查的一个历史时期，始于15世纪初并一直持续到18世纪。 这一时期通常被认为是中世纪和近代之间的桥梁， 当时西方帝国主义刚兴起，欧洲各王国之间正在经济上互相竞争，他们想通过建立贸易路线和殖民地来寻找财富。 在这一时期众多伟大的探险家中，最杰出的是克里斯托弗o哥伦布，因为他发现了新大陆。欧洲的海外扩张导致了殖民帝国的崛起，旧大陆与新大陆的接触也促进了两边的互相交换：大量的植物、动物、食物、文化等得到迁移。这代表了历史上生态、农业和文化在全球范围内最重大的活动之一。欧洲大勘探让绘制全球性的世界地图成为可能，从而使人们看到一个新的世界与古老的文明正遥相呼应。
The Silk Road is a traffic route in the ancient times connecting China and Eurasia. This trade route focuses on the trade of silk, hence the name “the Silk Road”. As an international trade channel and a bridge of cultural exchanges, the Silk Road effectively improved the economic and cultural exchanges and development between the East and the West, exerting a profound impact on the progress of the world civilization. Nowadays, under the new historical circumstances, our country proposes the strategy of “One Belt, One Road”(namely the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road). The strategy of “One Belt, One Road” focuses on cooperation and mutual benefits, emphasizing mutual benefits, win-win, as well as common development of the related countries. Once proposed, the strategy has received positive responses from the related countries along the road.
Unit5 Text B A$3,000 dictionary
2. Denotation: examine a place or area in order to get information about it
Connotation: it associates with the feeling of curiosity and anxiousness because it was a new experience and he was eager to find out what he could get for free.
3. Denotation: the right to do what you want without being controlled or restricted by anyone
Connotation: it implies the feeling of delightfulness because he had never used credit card before but now he could start to use it freely.
4. Denotation: not real or not made of natural things
Connotation: the word artificial appears before the word sense to men his sense of security was just a false one. In addition, it connotes that the sense was naive
because he was deceiving himself.
5. Denotation: produce, invent, or make up
Connotation: it connotes a sense of large quantity because he had to make up many different excuses and false stories to reject his friends’ offers.
6. Denotation: being unable to walk properly because one’s legs are damaged or injured
Connotation: It associates his emotional feelings with a crippled person to mean that he was in despair and unable to share his feeling with others.
7. Denotation: be unable to breathe properly
Connotation: It implies he was extremely embarrassed and felt guilty to talk about his financial problems. As a result, it was difficult for him to speak out the words.
8. Denotation: an idea or opinion that is wrong
Connotation: It connotes a sense of realization and regrets about the desire to get something free. Because of his illusion, he had to pay much more than a dictionary usually costs, i.e. $3,000.
Understanding the text
1.D 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D 6.A 7.C 8.C
Words in use
1.prohibited 2.submit 3.remedied 4.imposed
5.feature 6.crisis 7. artificial 8.principal
Expressions in use
1.suffering from 2.in accordance with 3.shrugged off
4.be entitled to 5. care about 6.tore at
7.access to 8. out of the question
1. Follow your doctor’s advice or your cough will get worse.
2. Stand over there and you’ll be able to see it better.
3. Watch your step if you go out or you might fall.
1. There is nothing more important than being honest with everyone at school and at work.
2. There is nothing more than helpful than using the Internet to improve my English skills.
3. There is nothing more than encouraging and stimulating than communicating successfully with your colleagues.
1. seemingly free 2. barely enough 3. easily accessible 4.absolutely needed
5.financially bankrupt 6.completely charmed 7.truly autonomous 8.staggeringly expensive 9.emotionally crippled
1. financial distress 2.financial trouble 3.financially bankrupt 4.seemingly free
6.easily accessible 7.emotionally crippled
8.artificial sense 9.truly autonomous 10.completely charmed 11.staggeringly expensive
Unit6 Less is more
Text A Door closer,are you?
1B 2C 3A 4E 5D
1 An irrational behavior can be described as an action or opinion not based on adequate use of logic and reason:
Be willing to pay much more for a cup of Starbucks coffee when there's cheaper, equally good coffee across the street.
Once a price is established in their minds, they will compare other similar items to this price, not only for the current but also for the future.
Buy products they don't need just because they get something for free in the transaction.
Do something just because some other people are doing the same thing.
2 Ignorance - People can be totally unaware about a situation, yet form their own views and judgments. They often tend to jump to conclusions based on rumors. Emotions - People take offense or get angry before the actual situation occurs. They become anxious and harbor unrealistic expectations.
Stress - It is the main reason that causes physical as well as mental problems. Stress creates feeling of anger, irritation and frustration.
Blind beliefs - People live entirely on the lines that are drawn by others and do not have their own point of view. They are too conscious about society and its reactions to them.
3 Yes, I'm often irrational because of different kinds of stress, uncertainty about my future, and sensitivity to how people look at me.
No, I don't think I'm irrational because I always use my logic and common sense to judge things and react to what has happened to me.
As the most intelligent animal on this earth, we are supposed to behave in a rational way, i.e., act according to logic and reason required in a situation. But does that really happen? Do we always behave rationally? Certainly not. There are a lot of people who behave irrationally, causing problems to themselves as well as to others. Irrational behavior is part of human nature, but as MIT Professor Ariely has discovered, people tend to behave irrationally in a predictable fashion. Though we cannot explain the exact cause behind irrational behavior, we know that it is a manner of behavior not based on logic and reasoning. I would like to give you an example of irrational behavior. If a person has heard about someone suffering from some disease, he will start thinking that he may suffer from the same disease. This is irrational
and illogical behavior. I don't think this behavior is always intentional.
Understanding the text
1 He was imposing on his troops a necessary sacrifice to achieve victory over their opponents. By doing this, the soldiers would be more determined and concentrated on the battles.
2 The purpose for the experiment is to investigate seemingly irrational human behavior when making a decision, such as the tendency for keeping multiple options open.
3 The experiment enabled people to see why it's always so hard for them to say "NO" to any opportunities that came to them. In everyday life, people just give excuses to keep options open.
4 Students should quickly check all the doors and keep clicking on the one with the highest cash. They should absolutely ignore the vanishing doors.
5 Because we can see that the students didn't really focus on ensuring future cash earnings. What they tried to avoid was the immediate pain of watching options close.
6 Because in life the doors are closing slowly, not like the ones on the computer in the experiment, people don't really see the opportunities actually vanishing away little by little.
7 He suggests that people should prohibit overbooking, reduce options, delegate tasks to others, and even give away ideas to others to pursue.
8 People can obtain pleasure and satisfaction by focusing their energy and attention in a more concentrated fashion. They will have more with fewer, carefully chosen options.
1 ~ Surprising but very strategic and visionary.
~ Reflection of his unique foresight and wisdom.
~ Knowledgeable about winning battles. ~ Experienced in fighting with enemies. 2 ~ Interesting and thought-provoking. ~ Reflect students' mentality.
~ Meaningful and valid.
~ May not be convincing to some people. 3 ~ Both consequences are surprising.
~ Both are about choices and decision-making. ~ Both have to do with strategies.
~ Both focus on human's mentality.
4 ~ Afraid of losing potential opportunities. ~ Too greedy and too ambitious.
~ Over-confident about their real capacity. ~ More choices, better chances.
5 ~ Fewer options, more focused concentration. ~ Fewer choices, better quality.
~ Everything has two sides.
~ Too much greed ends up with nothing. Language focus
1 implement 2 rival 3 motivating 4 discarded 5 fluctuating 6 prejudiced 7 restore 8 enlightening 9 profit 10 investigate
Words learned New words formed
1 sympathize 2 confirmation
3 strategic 4 installation
5 quote 6 sympathetic
7 criticize 8 location
9 reflection 10 industrialize
11 provision 12 registration
1 M 2 D 3 H 4 0 5 F
6 L 7 I 8 C 9 J 10 A
Expressions in use
I was attached to 2 be measured in
3 come in handy 4 clinging to
5 pay a big price 6 are exhausted from
7 imposed on 8 revolve around
Structure analysis and writing
There are a lot of people who behave irrationally, causing problems to themselves as well as to others. It's hard to analyze the exact causes behind irrational behavior, but we know that it is a manner of behavior that is not based on logic and reasoning. Irrational behavior is caused by various factors but two stand out.
The first main factor that contributes to irrational behavior is uncontrolled emotions. Irrational people take offense or get angry before the actual situation occurs. They become anxious and express exaggerated emotions such as crying and shouting. They have unrealistic expectations, expecting everyone to like them and if someone does not, they feel angry and neglected. It is fairly common for people to show such signs of irrationality.
Too much stress can also lead to irrational behavior. In fact, these days, stress is the major cause of physical as well as mental problems. Stress creates feelings of anger, irritation and frustration. For instance, when you spend a stressful day in the office, it makes you anxious. You start releasing your frustration or stress by screaming at your family members for small reasons like a badly prepared meal. That day you feel everything is wrong.
In summary, uncontrolled emotions and too much stress can result in irrational behavior. To behave rationally is not an easy job because the behavior is internalized. However, to discover the source of your irrationality will help you behave more rationally.
National Happiness Index (NHI) is an index that measures how happy people are. It is also a tool that measures the levels of economic development and people's livelihood and happiness in a country or region. With the fast growth of Chinese economy, the Chinese government has been paying more and more attention to people's living quality and the increase of happiness index. The government stresses improvement of its people's livelihood, striving to improve their economic conditions and meet their growing material and cultural needs. Currently, the Chinese government advocates the unleashing of more reform dividends, with the aim of offering more real benefits to its people. All these measures will combine to effectively increase the NHI of our people.
Unit 6 Text B When enough is enough
Understanding the text 2
1.C 2.B 3.D 4.A 5.D 6.B 7.A 8.D
Critical thinking 3
1. *Like to look good in other’s eyes.
*Tend to have spending habit
*Make them feel happy.
*Want to be in fashion
3. *Don’t know which option they want most.
*Seem to them there is never the best option.
*Want everything lest they miss a “perfect” one.
4. *Human beings are greedy by nature.
*Many believe “The more, the better”.
*Most people are too materialistic.
5. *Not really a good thing.
*Make people greedier and more materialistic.
*Make people exhausted to make decisions.
Words in use 4
1. concerning 2.specified 3.controversy 4.rendered 5.enforced
6. distribute 7.highlighted 8.implication 9.penetrating 10.subtract
Expressions in use 5
1. played a role 2.turned out 3.are depressed about 4. settle for
5. rushed into 6. out of control 7.transferred to 8.rely on
Sentence structure 6
1. The more carefully he thought about it, the clearer it became to him that this was a job for someone with experience.
2. The more exercise you do, the more energetic you will become, the easier your everyday tasks will seem.
3. The more interesting the plot is, the more appealing the film will become to the audience.
Sentence structure 7
1. He is normally a quiet person, but when it comes to sports, he becomes a completely different man.
2. When it comes to computers and the Internet, all the students become excited, each eager to say something about his experience.
3. A Frenchman may be ready to start a chat with a stranger on a train or in a café, but when it comes to friendship, the French seem to be more cautious than the British.
1. conscious effort 2.winning strategy 3.limited choice
4. remotest idea 5.temporary pain 6.primary role
1. rival options 2.painful choices 3.carefully chosen 4.mutiple options
4. winning strategy 6.predictably irrational 7.temporary pain 8.complex decision
9. limited choices 10.conscious effort 11.naturally prejudiced 12.accumulating evidence
Unit7 Women:Making a difference
TextA Women at rhe management level
3.Words in use
1. harness 2.symbolic 3.disposed 4.flourishing 5.violated 6.accommodation
7.infer 8.compose 9.plausible 10.tolerance
-al/-ial fate fatal horizon horizontal mechanic mechanical occasion occasional proportion proportionan logical logic deny denial commercial mommerce -ity relative relativity prior priority continue continuity actual actuality 5.
1.actuality 2.mechanical 3.logic 4.denial 5.Occasional 6.fatal 7.continuity
8.relativity 9.priority 10.commerce 11.proportional 12.horizon
1.D 2.J 3.M 4.H 5. A 6.O 7.F 8.L 9.I 10.C
1.comes down to 2.take exception to 3.make concessions to 4.burst into 5.feel at ease with 6.on both counts 7.took over 8.stemmed from
Unit 7 Text B A proud homemaker
Reading skills: 1
1.C 2.B 3.B 4.A
Understanding the text 2
1.D 2.C 3.A 4.C 5.D 6.A 7.B 8.C
Critical thinking 3
1. *Similarities: family-oriented, busy with house chores, cook meals, take care of children, clean rooms, do laundry
2. *Help and support the husband
*education and behave children morally
*Maintain the order of home.
*Keep the family healthy
3. *the husband: The man is supposed to have more responsibilities for his family since he physically stronger than his wife.
*The wife: the woman, to some degree, is more persevered in overcoming difficulties and she is always family-oriented.
*Both: Even though they share different family responsibilities, they both play important and indispensable poles as parents, husband or wife. Two incomes are always better than just one.
4. *Advantages: able to take good care of family, including their diet and health; more communication with family; help children with their schoolwork.
*Disadvantages: a lot of stress, exhausted, less aware of the outside world, lose social contact.
5. *Work outside: have many contacts, communication with more people, be informed of the outside world, be of more help financially.
*Stay home: take better care of family, pay more attention to children, provide healthier food to family, keep the rooms clean, help the husband / wife.
Words in use 4
1. bounce 2.tolerant 3.supplement 4.condemn 5.overflowed
6. swear 7.resemble 8.compounded 9.disgusting 10.trim
Expressions in use 5
1. convert to 2. was revolted by 3. was comprised of 4. busied himself with
5. fussed over 6. is unique in 7. exerting themselves 8. substituted for
Sentence structure 6
1. Having no idea about their thoughts and opinion, I would rather five up the attempt to guess what their reaction will be.
2. To avoid making mistakes, I would rather be home alone and not communicate with anybody.
3. The old man would rather be living in the past, for things are much more different today than they were in the past.
Sentence structure 7
1. I couldn’t stand bad manners and thought my leaving was anything but rude, so I got the nest train back home and left him there.
2. They usually look very nice and even generous, but in terms of integrity, they are anything but honest.
3. When the two young people got married, may people attended the wedding ceremony, yet it was anything but modern.
1. strong urge 2. Particularly difficult 3. Demanding job
4. make concessions 5. Social context 6. Management style
1. plausible 2. context 3.management 4.pleasantly 5. great 6. Strong
7 subtle 8 conflicting 9 personal 10 typically 11 diplomatically 12 vaguely
Unit 8 Human rights vs. Animal rights
Text A Animals or children?-A scientist’s choice
understanding the text:
1. He became a children’s doctor because of this love for children and his
strong desire to keep them healthy.
2. He is thought of having no moral compass: He tortures innocent animals for his career advancement and his experiments having nothing to do with medicine.
3. The public barely watches, convinced that the issue has no significance to them, while the senator and politicians continue to give way to the lobbying of animal rights activists
4. The author does not really admit their mistake, but the tone is apparently ironic, criticizing that the physicians were too soft to respond to the animal rights activists.
5. Life is cruel to both animals and human beings . if the physician don’t create an animal model of the problem, they have to do experiments on human beings, or the medical knowledge will remain static.
6. Drugs to cure infection will remain undiscovered, surgical and diagnostic techniques will remain undeveloped, and fundamental biological processes will remain mysteries.
7. Because protection from serious sickness and drugs as well as most complex surgical procedures were initially developed in animals instead of human beings
8. If the more radical members of this movement are successful in threatening further research, their efforts will bring about a tragedy that will cost the lives of many human beings.
word in use
1. arresting 2. omits 3. optional
4. transplanted 5. hence 6. twisted
7. stung 8. minute 9. imitate
Words learned New words formed
1. interference 2. invasion
3. Consumption 4. procession
5. specific 6. deception
7. scare 8. thriller
1.B 2. G 3. L 4. K 5. F
6. D 7. H 8. N 9. E 10.I
1. persisted in 2. have relevance to
3. becoming aware of
4. isolated from
5. in the name of
6. make a contribution
7. been occupied with
8. tip the scales
世界自然基金会（WWF）是一个致力于有关保护，研究和修复环境议题的国际性非政府组织。 该组织最初于1961被命名为世界野生动物基金会。1986年， 它更名为世界自然基金会， 以更好地反映其活动范围。 它是世界上最大的，独立的自然保护组织，拥有世界各地超个500万的支持者， 在100多个国家里开展工作，并援助约1,300个与自然和环境保护有关的项目。它的任务是阻止破坏地球的生态环境，建立一个能使人类与自然和谐相处的未来。目前，其大部分工作集中在对海洋和海岸，森林，淡水的保护。在其他问题上，它也关注濒危物种， 污染和气候变化。现在他们最需要的是资金，以履行其使命和处理有关的突发事件。
Since the founding of New China, especially since the economic reform and door-opening to the world, the Chinese government has made considerable efforts in eco-environmental protection and achieved effective progress. The government has taken a series of important measures to protect and improve the ecological environment, such as actively promoting key ecological projects, enhancing ecosystem construction and biodiversity conservations, establishing a number of nature reservation, ecological demonstration zones, scenic spots and forest parks. One of the important goals of building a socialist harmonious society is to strengthen ecological protection and construction and to achieve harmony between man and nature. Environmental protection and ecological civilization construction have provided a solid foundation for the sustainable development of China’s economy and society.
Unit 8 Text B The right to live-A dog’s account
Ex. 2 understanding the text:
1 D 2 A 3 C 4 C 5 D 6 B 7 D 8 C
Ex.4 words in use
1 emitted 2 shoved 3 sneak 4 symbol 5 wakened
6 lagged 7 ditch 8 countdown 9 discharged 10 rotated
Ex .5 expressions in use
1 out 2 with 3 in 4 between 5 from 6 of 7 with 8 over
o People with sleeping disorder cannot sleep much , as is the case with the people who get older
o The new irrigation system would require farmers to apply for a planning permission, as is the case with other commercial or industrial developments. o We have seen encouraging signs of improvement in our financial conditions, as is the case with the overall economy according to the media reports
o As enthusiastic and curious about it as he was at the start of his career. o As interested in these questions as he was when he first read them online. o As attentive toward his wife or children as she had expected.
1 severely restricted 2 terrifying effects 3 subsequent advances
4 damaging impact 5 remain undiscovered
1 entire field 2 subsequent advances 3 reasonable argument
4 severely restricted 5 terrifying effects 6 suitable alternatives
7 well-understood principles 8 Medical research
9 supreme desire 10 moral compass 11 remain undiscovered
12 innocent animals